Java Frameworks for Improving Automated Testing

Java Frameworks for Improving Automated Testing

Java is a programming and development language used in automated testing and applications. This programming language is class-based, object-oriented, and designed to have few implementation dependencies.

The primary purpose of using Java frameworks is to enhance speed and efficiency by reducing the possibility of errors. If you’re looking forward to a career in Java programming, you should have impeccable knowledge of testing frameworks and the development of secure and efficient applications.

Ready to learn more? Here are some of the most popular frameworks used in Java testing.


JBehave is a Java-based software that supports Behavior-Driven Development, or BDD. Having evolved from test-driven development, also known as TDD, and acceptance-test-driven development, BDD strips away all the technical details and complex knowledge for testing automation code.

This testing framework is intended to make behavior-based practices accessible and understandable for newcomers. It’s also great for collaborators who may not have extensive knowledge of tools, technologies, and processes.

The Java-based framework can run on Netbeans, Eclipse, and other IDEs. Additionally, the software comes with a reporting feature that makes it easy to generate reports in various formats, including text, XML, and HTML formats. It does so by defining a domain-specific language (DSL) and describing the behaviors and expectations of a system.

JBehave acts as the link between DSL and Java. To use JBehave, you’ll want to have hands-on experience in Java-based frameworks. Other prerequisites include:

  • Story: to describe the expected behavior of the test code. The story is in a *.story file.
  • Test to explain the execution of the described behavior. In most cases, the test is a Java file with special annotations.
  • Mapping to link the story and the process that helps JBehave know the steps to execute.


  • Easy to use and highly efficient because the specs have a similar format
  • JBehave use specific domain vocabulary and semi-formal language for consistent behavior
  • Very good documentation
  • JUnit support
  • Fast


  • It only supports stories — not features.


JBehave and Cucumber might be completely different testing frameworks, but they are both intended for behavior-driven development and acceptance tests.

Cucumber is an open-source tool that was first integrated and ran on Ruby, but was later extended to Java frameworks. The standard language parser for Cucumber is called Gherkin. It is popular among testers because it consolidates documentation according to the provided specifications.

Like JBehave, Cucumber testing software has native JUnit support. To use Cucumber, you must have basic testing and hands-on experience in testing tools. Commanding knowledge of Java and familiarity with Ruby and JUnit are also important.


  • Supports features (a feature refers to a collection of stories that a project stakeholder expresses).
  • Better readability
  • Can deliver single report documentation
  • Supports step reusability, which reduces the need for writing the same automation code again and again
  • Automated testing using example tables


  • Lacks documentation
  • Does not support parallel JUnit tests


Selenium is a testing framework that is mostly used to automate browsers and test web applications. Unlike Cucumber and JBehave, which accept testing, Selenium helps execute UI tests. The reason Selenium is widely accepted is that it is free and open-source. The prime task of Selenium is to employ automation testing for web apps based on various platforms.

Selenium is platform-independent and can run on various operating systems. That is why many software development engineers in test (SDETs) prefer it to other Java frameworks. Accordingly, Selenium can test scripts in various programming languages, including Java, such as maven and docker, Javascript, and C#.

The automated testing framework can also run test scripts on Python, Ruby, Perl, Groovy, and PHP. As mentioned earlier, Selenium can execute these tests on multiple browsers. Also, the testing framework can run in conjugation with other Java tools, such as maven and docker.


  • It runs on multiple browsers
  • Multi-languages and-framework support
  • Easy to use
  • Seamless integration and reusability
  • Frequent updates


  • It takes comparatively more time while creating test cases
  • Lacks built-in reporting facility
  • Limited to web apps only


Serenity, formerly called Thucydides, is an open-source platform for behavior testing. This software framework aids in writing clean and structured criteria for acceptance criteria used in test automation projects.

This framework can enhance the functionality of WebDriver and JUnit. It also offers a convenient way to create detailed testing reports.

As with other frameworks built on Java, users need to be well-versed with Java and other object-oriented programming languages before working with Serenity. Also, the workstation should have an IDE tool, JDK 5 or any version above, and Maven 3 or higher version.


  • Can support several automated acceptance testing solutions at once
  • Creates documents quickly
  • Provides detailed reports
  • Is compatible (integrates) with various other frameworks


  • It takes a long time to create feature files
  • The project participants must be in constant communication


JUnit a testing framework for the Java language. This unit test code is widely used in test-driven development and belongs to the xUnit family, initially known as SUnit.

The JUnit testing is intended for audiences who are beginners and those knowledgeable in Java. In essence, unit testing refers to testing a small unit of code or logic to ascertain if the output satisfies certain conditions as expected on the input.

JUnit is a unit test code, so it is independent of other tests. The framework testing is different from the others because it is comparatively efficient and faster. JUnit is the first library a developer should consider when doing core Java work.

 Developers should have a JDK 5 or higher version and a downloaded JUnit installed in the workstation to use this testing framework. Knowledge in java-based framework testing is also necessary.


  • Great support for test assertions
  • Faster test reporting
  • Simplified framework
  • Automated test scenarios
  • Self-verifying test cases


  • Fails when working with larger testing suites
  • Lacks the functionality to generate HTML reports
  • Does not support dependency testing


TestNG is an open-source testing framework that borrows largely from JUnit and NUnit with some new additional functionalities. NG in the TestNG stands for Next Generation and is comparatively stronger in testing than its peers. Moreover, testing is not complicated.

This testing framework can generate HTML reports, which play an integral role in the tests being performed. Developers should install the latest versions of Eclipse and JDK in the workstation to use TestNG successfully. Other prerequisites include knowledge and experience of Java and other object-oriented programming languages.


  • Support for data-driven and parallel testing
  • TestNG supports log generation
  • Functionality to create post-testing HTML reports
  • Can set test case execution’s priority
  • Easy to group underlying test cases


There are no real disadvantages of using TestNG, given that the functionalities are explicitly the same. However, TestNG takes a lot of time to set up. If you don’t need to prioritize test cases, this framework might not be right for you.


Java testing frameworks are elegant and easy to use in every situation. The frameworks reviewed in this article are the best tools available to help developers improve their automated testing. Other Java frameworks, such as DBUnit and Spock Framework, are also essential unit testing and integration testing tools and libraries for Java developers. But if you’re looking for the best resources out there, we recommend starting with this list!

Guest Post Author: Christoph Leitner is a code-loving father of two beautiful children. He is a full-stack developer and a committed team member at – a subsidiary of saas industries. When he isn’t building software, Christoph can be found spending time with his family or training for his next marathon.